E-SCu (Santiago de Compostela) Ms 609

Description: 

Psalterium (psalter, ff. 6r-134v), liber canticorum (book of canticles, ff. 135r-206r, including one of the two surviving Old Hispanic litanies of saints in ff. 198v-199v; the other one is in E-SAu Ms 2668) and liber horarum (i.e. type of Old Hispanic book containing the liturgy for the minor hours observed in the monastic cursus, ff. 207v-224v; ff. 206v-207r are blank); the liber horarum has material for the night hours only (though some authors have inaccurately called it a "diurnal") and is the only section of this codex that has musical notation (Old Hispanic vertical, in ff. 210r-224v). It also contains: a calendar (ff. 1v-4r), a poem by "Florus Ysidori Abbati" in honour of the Psalter (f. 4v); a "Prefatio" by "HIERONIMI PR[e]SB[ite]RI" about how to say the psalms in different circumstances of the Christian life (ff.4v-5v); several full-page illustrations (ff. 6r-7v). These illustrations include: in f. 6r, a colophon revealing the names of the intended owners of this book: "FERDINANDI REGIS SVM LIBER NECNON ET SANCIA REGINA" (i.e. King Fernando I of León and his wife, queen Sancha) and under this illustration, in modern Spanish with modern script in red ink, "Fue de Fernando Iº, año 1055, lo escribió Pedro y lo iluminó Fructuoso", and in pencil, the era: "1093"; in f. 6v, a portrait of King Fernando I of León and Queen Sancha of León, and someone, probably the scribe, handing them a book, probably this psalterium-liber canticorum et horarum; f. 7r, the title of the book ..."LIB[e]R PSALMOR[um]"...; and in f. 7v, the first decorated initial and words of the first psalm. Ff. 207v and 208v are also fully illustrated: f. 207v mentions different kings of northern Iberia, with Fernando I as the last; ff. 208v has the names of scribe and illustrator as well as the date: "ERA MILENA NOVIES DENA QUOQUE TERNA PETRUS ERAT SCRIPTOR FRUCTOSUS DENIQ[UE] PICTOR". These illustrations have golden characters like several initials throughout this codex.

Date: the date is 1055 as specified in colophon in f. 208v. Note that some authors have misread the colophon (or copied another author misreading it) and proposed 1055.

Provenance: the texts and the quality of the illustrations indicate that it was produced for king Fernando I of León. Even so, scholarship has debated about where exactly it was produced. Brockett (1968) proposed that even if it could have been produced in Galicia (where it currently is held), a Leonese origin is also possible because there were important monastic centres in León, such as Sahagún and Távara. Díaz y Díaz first believed that it could have been copied in Sahagún (1983); he later defended that its context of production was Castillian-Riojan (1991). More recently (2007), Díaz y Díaz wrote that this scribe "finished his work (...) undoubtedly at the court of León itself, under Queen Sancha's orders, although the palaeographical features of the Hours lead us to believe that he had received his refined training as a scribe in a center that makes us think more of links with Silos or Cardeña than with La Rioja, even if numerous reminders in his highly refined script show a clear aesthetic debt to Valeránica (...). Of course, at no time can he be considered to be from León on the basis of his writing" (p. 104). López-Calo (2007), recalling Díaz y Díaz (1983), argued that he believed that a likely origin would be León, and noted that the liber canticorum is related with the Carolingian world. Gutiérrez (2011) proposed that it was copied at the monastery of San Isidoro de León (called San Pelayo y San Juan before 1063, and which Fernando and Sancha converted into the Royal Pantheon) by a copyist related with Santo Domingo de Silos.

Liturgical tradition: A.

Randel responsorial tone tradition: León.

Shelf-mark: 
Ms 609
Century: 
Provenance: 
Kingdom of León (see "Description" above).
Script: 
Cursus: 
monastic
Category: 
Manuscript / Print: 
Material: 
Page layout (mm): 
310x220
Date: 
1055 as specified in colophon in f. 208v: "ERA MILENA NOVIES DENA QUOQUE TERNA" (i.e. era 1093). Date also specified in modern script Spanish in f. 62r (see "Description" above).
Indexed by: 

Raquel Rojo Carrillo

Bibliography: 

ASENSIO, Juan Carlos, El canto gregoriano: Historia, liturgia, formas… (Madrid: Alianza Música. Alianza Editorial, 2003).
BROCKETT, Clyde W., Antiphons, Responsories, and Other Chants of the Mozarabic Rite (Musicological Studies, 15. Brooklyn, New York: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1968).
BROU, Dom Louis, "Notes de Paléographie musicale mozarabe", Anuario Musical, N. 5 (1952), 51-76 (pp. 74-5).
CLARK, Charles Upson, Collectanea Hispanica (Paris: Libraire Ancienne Honoré Champion Édouard Champion, September 1920), p. 31.
DÍAZ Y DÍAZ, Manuel C., "Some Incidental Notes on Music Manuscripts", in Zapke, Susana, (ed.), Hispania Vetus: Musical-Liturgical Manuscripts from Visigothic Origins to the Franco/Roman Transition (9th-12th Centuries) (Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2007), 93-111 (especially pp. 104-5).
Libros y librerías en La Rioja altomedieval (Logroño: Biblioteca de Temas Riojanos. Instituto de Estudios Riojanos, 1991), p. 179.
Códices visigóticos de la monarquía leonesa (León: Centro de Estudios e Investigación “San Isidoro”, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad de León, y Archivo Histórico Diocesano, 1983), pp. 279-92.
DÍAZ Y DÍAZ, Manuel C. and Serafín MORALEJO ÁLVAREZ (preliminary study), and Mª Virtudes PARDO GÓMEZ and Mª Araceli GARCÍA PIÑEIRO (transcription of text), Libro de Horas de Fernando I de León (Scriptorium 8. Santiago de Compostela: Consellería de Educación e Ordenación Universitaria, 1995), 2 Vols.
FERNÁNDEZ DE LA CUESTA, Ismael, Historia de la música española: 1. Desde los orígenes hasta el “ars nova” (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1983).
Manuscritos y fuentes musicales en España: Edad Media (Opera Omnia: Colección dirigida por Rodrigo de Zayas. Madrid: Editorial Alpuerto, 1980).
FÉROTIN, D.M., Le Liber Mozarabicus Sacramentorum et les manuscrits mozarabes (F. Cabrol, H. Leclercq, & M. Férotin (eds.), Monumenta Ecclesiae Liturgica, Vol. 6. Paris: Librairie de Firmin-Didot et Cie., 1912), pp. 931-6.
—"Deux manuscrits wisigothiques de la Bibliothèque de Ferdinand Ier roi de Castille et de Léon", Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes, Vol. 62 (1901), 374-87 (pp. 374-83).
GARCÍA VILLADA, Zacarías, Paleografía española (Madrid: Centro de Estudios Históricos, 1923), Vol. 1, pp. 95-6.
GÓMEZ MUNTANÉ, Maricarmen, La música medieval en España (Kassel: Edición Reichenberger, 2001).
GUTIÉRREZ, Carmen Julia, "Melodías del canto hispánico en el repertorio litúrgico poético de la Edad Media y el Renacimiento", in Férnandez de la Cuesta, Ismael, Rosario Álvarez Martínez and Ana Llorens Martín (eds.), El canto mozárabe y su entorno: Estudios sobre la música de la liturgia viejo hispánica (Madrid: Sociedad Española de Musicología, 2013), 547-75.
JANINI, José, Manuscritos litúrgicos de las bibliotecas de España: I. Castilla y Navarra (Burgos: Ediciones Aldecoa, 1977), pp. 246-7.
LÓPEZ CALO, José, "Psalterium et liber canticorum", in Zapke, Susana, (ed.), Hispania Vetus: Musical-Liturgical Manuscripts from Visigothic Origins to the Franco/Roman Transition (9th-12th Centuries) (Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2007), 256.
MILLARES CARLO, Agustín, Corpus de Códices Visigóticos, ed. M. C. Díaz y Díaz and others (Canarias: Fundación de Enseñanza Superior a Distancia de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 1999).
—"Manuscritos visigóticos. Notas bibliográficas", Hispania Sacra, Vol. 14, N. 28 (1961), 337-444.
PINELL, Jordi, "Los textos de la antigua liturgia hispánica. Fuentes para su estudio", in Rivera Recio, Juan Francisco (ed.), Estudios sobre la liturgia mozárabe (Publicaciones del Instituto Provincial de Investigaciones y Estudios Toledanos, serie 3. Toledo: Diputación Provincial, 1965), Vol. 1, 109-64 (pp. 118-20).
RANDEL, Don Michael, An Index to the Chant of the Mozarabic Rite (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1973).
The Responsorial Tones for the Mozarabic Office (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1969).
RIAÑO, Juan Facundo, Classical and Bibliographical Notes on Early Spanish Music (London: B. Quaritch, 1887), pp. 26-7.
ROJO, Casiano and Germán PRADO, El canto mozárabe: Estudio histórico-crítico de su antigüedad y estado actual (Publicaciones del Departamento de Música, 5. Barcelona: Biblioteca Central. Diputación Provincial de Barcelona, 1929), p. 24.

Submitted by Raquel Rojo Carrillo
Post date: 15 Apr 2017 | Last update: 04 Apr 2018

Chants of the source

Displaying -99 - 0 of 0 chants.